Author. Title. Title of Container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.
MLA's core elements now help you craft your citation. Each element should be used if it is relevant, otherwise it can be omitted. Each element is followed by the appropriate punctuation of the citation. Click each element to learn more.
You can repeat elements 3-9 as needed once the initial citation is completed.
Author is also used for those who hold the primary responsibility for producing the work.
Contributors that hold a title other than author follow the same format but follow the name by a comma and their role (Example: Carlson, Catie, editor.).
The title is the title of the source, whether it is the title of the book, the chapter, article, or episode. Subtitles are included. Chapter and article titles will be in quotation marks, while book titles will be italicized. If the title of a work begins with an article (A, An, The, etc.), include the title's article in both the works cited page and in the paper (if the title is referenced).
Containers may be the title of the book, the title of the periodical, title of the television series, or title of the website, etc. Containers are italicized.
There may be more than one container, such as a television series that you found on Hulu or a journal article you found in EBSCO. These types of containers should also be listed, but not until after the location.
If the source gives any indication of different versions available, include it in your citation. Common examples are second edition, unabridged version, director's cut, etc.
Numbers may include the volume of a multi-volume set, the volume and issue number of a journal, the issue number of a journal or comic book, or the season and episode number of a television series.
Publishers can be located on the copyright page of books. In certain situations, publishers can be omitted such as for periodicals, self-published works, and websites that are not responsible for the production of it's contents (like YouTube).
Select the date that is the most relevant or meaningful to your project. How much of a date you provide (such as the day, month and/or time) will depend on your use of the citation.
Location is where you found the source, such as the page range in a a book or an online source's URL or DOI.
For more information on using containers and the template, visit the link below.
Some words included in the works cited list should not be abbreviated. Spell out the full word every time you use it. This applies to words such as:
To view a list of commonly used words that should be abbreviated, click here.
Use a publisher's full name as they appear on the source's pages. Exceptions to these rules include: